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Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian Style

Who should use the Chicago/Turabian Citation Style?

  • Chicago Style is a citation and paper format originally created at the University of Chicago.
  • It is often used to document sources for papers in the humanities (e.g. history, fine arts, and political science). 
  • Turabian is a style of writing and formatting that is created and updated by Kate Turbian.
  • It is adapted from the University of Chicago's 'Chicago' style of citation and is simplified for students and researchers.
  • Turabian is most commonly used in the social sciences, such as in History courses.

Chicago vs. Turabian

The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical with the only major difference being in the numbering of their notes.

  • In Turabian Style citations, a superscript 1 is used for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

          Example: 1Turabian 

  • In Chicago style, the in-text numbering is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period.  Within the footnote, it is the number followed by a period.

         Example:  1. Chicago

Other than the numbering, there are no major differences.  The Bibliography entry is the SAME for both formats.

Online Sources for Chicago/Turabian

Selected Chicago/Turabian Style Manuals

FAQs about errors -- Composing and revising -- Doing research -- Online writing and design -- Sentence style -- Sentence grammar -- Language/glossary -- Punctuation/mechanics -- MLA documentation -- APA,CBE, and Chicago documentation -- Special kinds of writing -- For multilingual writers.

Chicago/Turabian Style Handouts

Web Tutorials

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